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plane more time and again than not land at an airport on a solid runway or helicopter landing pad, generally constructed of asphalt concrete, concrete, gravel or grass. Aircraft equipped with pontoons (floatplane) or with a boat hull-shaped fuselage (a flying boat) are able to land on water. Aircraft also from time to time employ skis to land on snow or ice. To land, the airspeed and the rate of descent are reduced such that the object descends at a low enough rate to allow for a gentle touch down. Landing is accomplished by slowing down and descending to the runway. This speed lessening is accomplished by reducing thrust and/or inducing a greater amount of drag using flaps, landing gear or speed brakes. When a fixed-wing aircraft approaches the ground, the pilot will shift the have preeminence over column back to execute a flare or round-out. This increases the angle of attack. Progressive movement of the control column back will allow the helicopter to settle onto the landing strip at minimum momentum, landing on its main wheels first in the case of a tricycle gear aircraft or on all three wheels simultaneously in the case of a conventional landing gear-equipped aircraft, normally referred to as a "tail dragger". This is known as flaring In a light aircraft, with little crosswind, the ideal landing is when contact with the ground occur as the forward speed is reduced to the point where there is rejection longer sufficient airspeed to stay behind aloft. The stall warning is frequently heard just before landing, indicating that this speed in addition to altitude contain been reached. The result is very light touch down. Light aircraft landing situation, in adding to the pilot skill required, can be divided into four types. Normal landings Crosswind landings - where a momentous stormy weather not allied with the landing area is a factor Short field landings - where the length of the landing area is a limiting factor Soft and unprepared field landings - where the hallway area is wet, soft or has ground obstacles such as furrow otherwise ruts to contend with In large transport category (airliner) aircraft, pilots terrain the aircraft by "flying the aircraft on to the runway." The airspeed plus attitude of the plane are adjusted for corridor. The airspeed is kept well above stall speed and at a constant rate of descent. A flare is performed just before landing, and the descent rate is significantly abridged causing a light touch down. Upon land, spoilers (sometimes called "lift dumpers") are deployed to radically reduce the lift and transfer the aircraft's weight to its wheels, where mechanical braking, such as an auto brake system, can take effect. Reverse thrust is used by many jet aircraft to help slow down just after land, redirecting engine exhaust onward instead of back. Some propeller-driven airplanes also have this feature, where the blades of the propeller are re-angled to push air forward instead of back by the 'beta range'.


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